From the clothes we wear to the pillowcases we sleep on, fabric is everywhere. It has a deeper impact on us than we might realize.
The colors, textures and materials around us affect our mood and attitude. They can also bring back memories.
The process involves converting the natural and synthetic fibers into a piece of cloth and is not as simple. Let’s delve deeper into how the fabric is manufactured:
Raw Materials that Make Up Fabric
Generally, there are three categories when it comes to raw materials for fabrics. They are:
· From animals
· From natural resources
Here are some examples:
Cotton/Denim – Cotton Plant
Lycra/Spandex/Nylon – Man-made
Silk – Cocoon of the silkworm
Wool – Coat of sheep
The Manufacturing Process
Fabric production requires three basic steps. Let’s see what they are:
The first step involves processing and harvesting the raw fibers into yarn. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be carried out by hand, but that can be quite tedious.
Today, a spinning wheel does this job. As the wheel spins, the fibers are assembled in a cylindrical object called a bobbin.
Knitting and Weaving
Knit fabric is made from one continuous thread, so it stretches all over and in every direction.
Woven fabrics stretch in one direction, diagonally.
Knitting consists of stitches or loops of material run together. Weaving is the process in which two types of yarns are interlaced together to form a fabric. The two types of thread run in different directions.
Fabric that comes fresh out of the loom is called greige. Greige contains impurities, such as seed particles, debris, etc.
These impurities have to be cleaned. First, bleach or more natural chemicals are applied to purify greige’s base color. Then, oil and wax have to be removed through intensive cleaning.
Finally, it is converted into useful textiles.